Space Is Big. Really Big.

No one knows the full extent of the size of the universe we inhabit because we can’t see it all, and we never will. In the part we can observe, there are at least two trillion galaxies, which contain many more stars than there are gains of sand on the Earth.
Many of these stars may have a solar system of planets, so there might be as many or more planets than there are stars. Earth is just one of these planets in one of these solar systems in one of these two trillion galaxies in the observable universe.
It is hard to contemplate the magnitude of what I’m trying to say….
What we can see in all directions is rather BIG. There are other planets in our solar system that are bigger than our planet, the sun is much bigger than any of the planets in our solar system, and there are plenty of other suns that are much bigger than our sun. And there are bigger things than stars. And there are all those massive Black Holes in the centers of most galaxies and sprinkled throughout them.
We used to believe that all of reality turned about us, that we were the center of the universe, that it was ALL ABOUT US. We used to think that the Sun revolved around the Earth, then we found it was the other way around. We used to think that stars were just small celestial spheres in the dome of heaven above us, now we know that our solar-system is just one of perhaps tens of billions of solar systems in the Milky Way (maybe as many as 100 billion). We used to think our galaxy was the whole universe, now we know that there are so many other galaxies that if ours disappeared, no one might notice (and maybe there would be no one to notice). We used to believe that ours was the only universe, now some think that there might be an infinite number of universes.
On the Grand Scale of Things, our Earth may be much, much tinier in relationship to the universe (or multiverse) than a subatomic particle is in relationship to us.
In 1977, NASA launched the space probes Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 on a Grand Tour to the planets in our outer Solar System. In 1990 when Voyager 1 was approximately 6 billion kilometers or 3.7 billion miles away and had completed its primary mission, astronomer and science popularizer Carl Sagan convinced NASA to turn around its camera and take one last photograph of Earth. The resulting image of Earth took up less than one pixel (0.12 pixels) in the 640,000 pixel photograph.
The Pale Blue Dot, Earth

Here is what Sagan had to say about it later in some of the best lines ever spoken by anyone….
Look again at that dot. That’s here. That’s home. That’s us. On it everyone you love, everyone you know, everyone you ever heard of, every human being who ever was, lived out their lives. The aggregate of our joy and suffering, thousands of confident religions, ideologies, and economic doctrines, every hunter and forager, every hero and coward, every creator and destroyer of civilization, every king and peasant, every young couple in love, every mother and father, hopeful child, inventor and explorer, every teacher of morals, every corrupt politician, every “superstar,” every “supreme leader,” every saint and sinner in the history of our species lived there–on a mote of dust suspended in a sunbeam.
The Earth is a very small stage in a vast cosmic arena. Think of the rivers of blood spilled by all those generals and emperors so that, in glory and triumph, they could become the momentary masters of a fraction of a dot. Think of the endless cruelties visited by the inhabitants of one corner of this pixel on the scarcely distinguishable inhabitants of some other corner, how frequent their misunderstandings, how eager they are to kill one another, how fervent their hatreds.
Our posturings, our imagined self-importance, the delusion that we have some privileged position in the Universe, are challenged by this point of pale light. Our planet is a lonely speck in the great enveloping cosmic dark. In our obscurity, in all this vastness, there is no hint that help will come from elsewhere to save us from ourselves.
The Earth is the only world known so far to harbor life. There is nowhere else, at least in the near future, to which our species could migrate. Visit, yes. Settle, not yet. Like it or not, for the moment the Earth is where we make our stand.
It has been said that astronomy is a humbling and character-building experience. There is perhaps no better demonstration of the folly of human conceits than this distant image of our tiny world. To me, it underscores our responsibility to deal more kindly with one another, and to preserve and cherish the pale blue dot, the only home we’ve ever known.
Launched in 1977 and traveling at 17 kilometers per second (11 mi/s), it wasn’t until August 25, 2012, that Voyager 1 became the first spacecraft to cross the boundary between our sun’s solar wind and the rest of the galaxy and enter interstellar space. In about 40,000 years it may pass within 1.6 light-years of the star Gliese 445, which is racing towards our Solar System at 119 km/s (430,000 km/h; 270,000 mph).
However big many objects in the observable universe may be in relationship to us, they all pale in relationship to the size of the observable universe itself. Despite the fact that the number of stars we may see are possibly 10 times more numerous than all the grains of sand on Earth, they are very far apart from each other.
Our own Milky Way galaxy contains between 200 and 400 billion stars, and the distance between the local stars in our galaxy is proportional to two grains of sand more than 30 miles apart.
Proxima Centauri is the closest star to us after the sun is about 4.24 light years away. If Voyager 1 was headed in that direction (which it isn’t), it would take 76,000 years to make it there. Using some kind of Gravity Assist method like Helios 2 did to get a slingshot effect from the Sun (setting the record for the fastest man-made object ever at over 240,000 km/hr or 150,000 miles/hr), it would take about 19,000 years.
Some proposed technically feasible methods include the Radio Frequency (RF) Resonant Cavity Thruster (or EM Drive), which would reduce the travel time to 13,000 years, and the Nuclear Thermal and Nuclear Electric Propulsion methods which might cut it down to a mere 1,000 years.
Proposals for more theoretical methods like Nuclear Pulse Propulsion, Fusion Rockets, Fusion Ramjets, and so on could cut the travel time down to a few dozen years but are problematic for many reasons and aren’t very economically feasible. A Laser Sail method could get us there in a dozen years or so, but it would take a steady flow of all the power consumed on Earth every day and a sail hundreds of miles in diameter. Using some kind of Antimatter Engine could cut the time down to as little as 8 years, but it would require hundreds of thousands (maybe millions) of metric tons of antimatter fuel, but it currently costs over a trillion dollars to produce just one gram of antimatter, and the total amount we’ve ever created is less than 20 nanograms (this is not counting the tremendous size and cost of the ship and many other technological hurdles that would have to be overcome).
Even if we could travel at or very near to the speed of light, it would still take 4.24 years or more just to reach the nearest star beyond our sun. And traveling at or close to the speed of light may not even be possible. As you approach the speed of light, whatever spaceship you’re traveling in becomes increasingly more massive requiring more energy until the amount of energy required approaches infinity. The speed of light is the cosmic speed-limit because reaching it may require an infinite amount of energy.
Of course, the most theoretical proposed method is some kind of “Warp Drive,” where you would ride in a kind of “warp bubble” that stretches out the fabric of space-time into a wave to cause the space ahead to contract and the space behind to expand. You wouldn’t be violating the speed of light cosmic speed limit because you wouldn’t actually be moving through space. You would be resting in a bubble that would be warping the space around it. This method could cut the travel time to less than 4 years, but it may not be actually possible. It may require a prohibitive amount of energy to work, and we may find that it violates one or more of the fundamental laws of nature.
Our Milky Way galaxy is 100,000 light year in diameter (tiny compared to the galaxy M87 at 980,000 light years in diameter or the galaxy Hercules A, which is 1.5 million light years across). If Voyager 1 were headed to the center of our galaxy (which it isn’t), it would take more than 450,000,000 years to make the trip. Even if it could travel at the speed of light, it would take over 26,000 years.
The two trillion galaxies in our observable universe are separated from each other by even greater distances than local stars are within these galaxies.
The Milky Way has some smaller satellite galaxies around it, but the nearest major galaxy to the Milky Way is Andromeda, 2.5 million light-years away. Even with some kind of light-speed rocket or Warp Drive, ever making a trip like that may forever be beyond us.
The Andromeda Galaxy is estimated to collide with the Milky Way Galaxy in about 4.5 billion years, so it may be easier to wait for it to come to us. But aside from galaxies which are gravitationally drawn to each other in local groups like Andromeda and the Milky Way are in ours, the universe is getting bigger all the time due to Dark Energy at an ever increasing rate. The 2.5 million light-years from the Milky Way to Andromeda is a short hop compared to the size of the observable universe which has an estimated diameter of 93 billion light years and a radius of about 46.5 billion light years. And the universe is getting bigger and bigger at an exponential rate all the time.
As Douglas Adams said in The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, “Space is big. Really big. You just won’t believe how vastly hugely mind-bogglingly big it is.”


Moon Landing 50th Anniversary – Part 2

Before a joint session of Congress on May 25, 1961, President John F. Kennedy made this proposal:

“I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the Earth. No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind, or more important for the long-range exploration of space; and none will be so difficult or expensive to accomplish.”

At Rice Stadium in Houston, Texas on September 12, 1962, he said:

“We choose to go to the Moon! We choose to go to the Moon…We choose to go to the Moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard; because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one we intend to win, and the others, too.”

These are some of his remarks about the challenge to go to the Moon on November 21, 1963, the day before he was assassinated in Dallas:

“Frank O’Connor, the Irish writer, tells in one of his books how, as a boy, he and his friends would make their way across the countryside, and when they came to an orchard wall that seemed too high and too doubtful to try and too difficult to permit their voyage to continue, they took off their hats and tossed them over the wall–and then they had no choice but to follow them.

“This Nation has tossed its cap over the wall of space, and we have no choice but to follow it. Whatever the difficulties, they will be overcome.”

They were overcome and Kennedy’s challenge was met.

Before the decade was out, on July 20, 1969–with over 530 million people watching from Planet Earth–the Lunar Module ‘Eagle’ carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed at 4:17 p.m. EDT.

At 4:18 p.m. Armstrong said:

“Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed.”

Attached to the ladder on the descent stage of the Lunar Module was a plaque with this inscription: 

“Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the Moon July 1969, A.D. We came in peace for all mankind”

Later, at 10:56 p.m. Armstrong stepped onto the Moon surface and said:

“That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.”

Aldrin joined him about 19 minutes later, and together they spent a little over 2 hours on the Moon.

They returned to the Lunar Module at about 1:10 a.m. EDT July 21st.

If someone had to pick a date to start counting from as the dawn of a new era, July 20, 1969 is a worthy choice to consider.

The ‘political cartoon’ that appeared in the paper I have from the next day I thought was especially poignant.

Moon Landing 50th Anniversary – Part 1

A friend asked me once what I thought was the most significant news event to happen in my lifetime. He thought I my answer might be the 9-11 attack, or the John F. Kennedy assassination, or something along those lines.

I answered that I thought it was when we landed on the Moon.

That was a massive accomplishment!!!

It was the culmination of millions of years of evolution, including thousands of years of advances in mathematics, science, and technology.

It should be a national and international holiday.

In May 1961, when Kennedy proposed that the U.S. “should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth,” he was raising the bar about as high as it could have been raised. It was an incredible challenge that would require new concepts, new designs, and new technology. It would also require tremendous effort, tremendous investment, and tremendous coordination.

Growing up, I had been a big fan of NASA ever since I could remember….

I was born when Explorer 1–the first satellite launched by the United States–was still sending data back to Earth, and a little over 5 months before NASA was formed. At one time, I knew every mission, the astronauts that flew them, the nicknames of the spacecraft, and what happened with each one.

By July 1969, I was following the flight of Apollo 11 as closely as I could. I was one of millions of people all over the world watching the Moon Landing (on CBS with Walter Cronkite, of course).

The technology was fairly primitive by today’s standards….

Nevertheless, the Apollo Guidance Computer was a massive breakthrough at the time with 2k of memory and 32k of storage to land on the Moon, and it could preform 8 tasks at once!!!

During the descent they first had some trouble with communications, and then, after that was resolved, two computer alarms went off: 1202 and 1201.

The astronauts had been trained in simulators for almost everything anybody could imagine happening. Usually, if anything like this happened, the answer was to “abort” the landing.

The astronauts didn’t know these alarms meant and had never trained for them.

And at first, even NASA didn’t know what they meant either.

Basically, what was happening was that the computer was getting too much information to process. However, it was set to reboot automatically when that happened and return to the same place it was before it had to reboot, so it was more like some hiccups in the system, and Mission Control was still getting data.[The people who wrote that software in assembly language to land on the Moon probably had to be more succinct in their coding than most any other software program that comes out today, and it wasn’t a fault with the software that caused the problem, it was when Aldrin turned on some radar that would be useful if they had to abort. Aldrin also noticed the correlation and suggested that his action was related to the alarms. The extra data coming in as a result of Aldrin flipping that switch was enough to exceed the computer’s capacity and sound the alarms.]

Imagine you are one of the two people in the Lunar Module on your way down to be the first in all of human history to land on the Moon. You’re doing something that’s NEVER been done before and millions of people all over the word are listening to every word you say and every breath you take. The hopes of humanity are all focused on you, your margin of error is incredibly tiny with death just out the window, just one small mistake away…. and alarms are going off on your landing computer.

NASA came back with a “go” on those alarms. In other words, “ignore them” and “keep going.”

When Armstrong could get a good look at the landing site situation, he realized that it wasn’t the one projected. They were 2 seconds off, so they were two miles further downfield than they planned.

They were headed to land in a crater with car-size rocks all around.

Armstrong decided to take control of the landing to the extent he could. He expended almost all the remaining fuel in the lander to land passed that. This took them another two miles away from the original landing site.

At the end, when his fuel was about to run out, and dust was blowing up from the landing thrusters–making it difficult for him to see exactly where he was landing (or what he might be landing on)–they finally touched down so gently that it was hardly noticeable.Buzz Aldrin says, “Contact light.”

However, they actually hadn’t ‘landed’ at this point. The landing legs had probes extending down and he was reporting that at least one of the probes had touched the surface.

Then Neil Armstrong says, “Shutdown” and Aldrin responds, “Okay. Engine stop.”

There was a short technical exchange between Armstrong and Aldrin that was part of the post-shutdown process, then there was the “official” announcement by Armstrong: “Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed.” [Houston was where Mission Control was located. Armstrong come up with the name “Tranquility Base” because they had landed in the lava-plain Mare Tranquillitatis (“Sea of Tranquility”). The “Eagle” was the name of the Apollo 11 Lunar Module.]

One can make an argument for any of these as the first words spoken from the Moon.

Regardless, considering all the pressure they were under and ongoing drama going on I just relayed, the words exchanged between the two astronauts and Mission Control during the entire descent are exceedingly calm.

Mission Control expresses the pent-up relief everyone must have felt once they had landed in their response, “Roger, Twan…Tranquility. We copy you on the ground. You got a bunch of guys about to turn blue. We’re breathing again. Thanks a lot.”

Keeping all that in mind, this video is one of the best there is to watch the landing.

Persuasive Technology & The Attention Economy

A while back, I ran across several videos and articles by a “technology design ethicist” named Tristian Harris–who also appeared on 60 Minutes–about how technology is manipulating us into spending more time online and the consequences thereof. He says, “I call it the race to the bottom of the brain stem.”

From a November 2016 article in The Atlantic:

“‘Our generation relies on our phones for our moment-to-moment choices about who we’re hanging out with, what we should be thinking about, who we owe a response to, and what’s important in our lives,’ he said. ‘And if that’s the thing that you’ll outsource your thoughts to, forget the brain implant. That is the brain implant. You refer to it all the time.'”

I can’t find one good single video to cover all the things he gets into overall, though SOME of it overlaps aspects of what I’ve been arguing for years that have to do with what is evidently called the “Attention Economy” and how it encourages short attention spans, desires for instant gratification, black and white thinking, and isolates us into our own content bubbles of conformation biases (which drives us further apart).

As he says in another article, “But it also changes us on the inside. We grow less and less patient for reality as it is, especially when it’s boring or uncomfortable. We come to expect more from the world, more rapidly. And because reality can’t live up to our expectations, it reinforces how often we want to turn to our screens. A self-reinforcing feedback loop.”

But most of what you’ll find in these videos and articles has to do with some examples of what is evidently called “Persuasive Technology” designed to continually capture our attention until it becomes like a drug.

“There’s this whole discipline and field of persuasive technology…. What is the ethics of persuasion, especially when the consequences in this case now affect billions of people?”

A few other interesting phrases I ran across diving into this were: “Choice Architectures,” “Design Ethics,” and “Continuous Partial Attention.”

In his appearance on 60 Minutes, professor of psychology at California State University Larry Rosen–a researcher of the psychology of tech–said typically, people check their phones every 15 minutes or less. They’re not just craving dopamine; he said they’re seeking relief from the stress hormone cortisol.

“Half of the time, they check their phone, there’s no alert, no notification,” said Rosen. “It’s coming from inside their head, telling them, ‘Gee I haven’t checked on Facebook for a while, I haven’t checked on this Twitter feed for a while. I wonder if someone commented on my Instagram post. That then generates cortisol and it starts to make you anxious. Eventually your goal is to get rid of that anxiety, so you check in.”

In an article by professor of psychology at San Diego State University Jean M. Twenge titled: “Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation?” she worries post-Millennials are “on the brink of a mental-health crisis.”

She says, “There is compelling evidence that the devices we’ve placed in young people’s hands are having profound effects on their lives—and making them seriously unhappy.”

Some aspects of this remind me of the Star Trek Next Generation episode “The Game.”

The plot of the episode from Wikipedia:

“Riker returns from a vacation on Risa with a game that he is eager to share with the crew. Unfortunately, the game is psychologically addictive (making the crew suffer from Virtual Reality Addiction), and it quickly turns nearly every member of the Enterprise’s crew into a mind-controlled pawn of the Ktarians, who are using the devices to gain control of Starfleet.”

All this resulted in me creating the image meme at the top of this post.

This is one decent short introductory video about it….

Here are a couple others that are a bit longer….

Here’s a link to Tristian Harris’ site:


I’m 61-years-old and it seems I’ve moved 31-32 times in my life (covering 5 states and 10 cities).

The 5 states were: NC, FL, TN, VA, and PA.

The 10 cities and the number of places I’ve lived in each of them is below:

Wilmington, NC – 11

Wrightsville Beach, NC – 2

Concord, NC – 2

Charlotte, NC – 2

Nashville, TN – 2

High Point, NC – 1

Burlington, NC – 1

Hampton, VA – 1

Jeffersonville, PA – 1

Clearwater, FL – 1

Most of the moves have been in NC.

I’ve moved to and from Wilmington/Wrightsville Beach, NC and Burlington, NC six times, and Charlotte, NC and Wilmington/Wrightsville Beach, NC twice.

The last move I made was to Charlotte in 2005, so I haven’t moved in 14 years. Considering I lived here briefly earlier, the total time here is about 15 years.

The total time I spent in Burlington growing up–and coming back a few times–is about the same.

The time I spent in Concord in my earliest years is about half that (7 1/2 years).

But it seems I lived in 13 different places in the Wilmington/Wrightsville Beach area alone, so I spent a LOT of time there.

As a result, I’ve still lived longer in the Wilmington/Wrightsville Beach, NC area than anywhere else…

…and I still miss it.

I’ve always felt at home there from the first time I visited in 1976. Every time I drive across the Cape Fear River Bridge into the city, I have a sense of relief… like I’m finally home again. 

Maybe I’ll get back there someday. 

The Library of Babel

Imagine a library where every combination of letters, spaces, commas, and periods is accessible, where anything that has ever been said or written or thought—or ever could be said or written or thought—is there. It would include news stories about the future, descriptions of your own birth and death, the secrets of the universe, and so on and on (both true and false, of course).

According to Wikipedia, “‘The Library of Babel’ (Spanish: La biblioteca de Babel) is a short story by Argentine author and librarian Jorge Luis Borges (1899–1986), conceiving of a universe in the form of a vast library containing all possible 410-page books of a certain format and character set.”

This short story was published in 1941.

A couple years ago, someone decided to build a website to implement the idea. The video at the bottom of this post is set to start at the 17:10 mark where it talks about how it works.

The problem with this is that because there are more possible combinations than you could ever sort through, the vast and overwhelming majority of it is gibberish. And just as in the short story, spending time trying to find something useful in all the gibberish could result in “suicidal despair.”

However, the site does allow you to find anything you type in to search for within the library.

What’s also weird is that the library on the site has the same thing for images.

As it says on the site about that section of the library:

“Instead of letters and punctuation marks, the Image Archives permute the 4096 colors, and rather than a page of 40 lines each with 80 characters, the images are pixel grids with 416 rows and 640 columns. It contains every image that ever has been or could be created with this color palette in these dimensions, including portraits of every person who ever lived at every moment in their life, digitized versions of every work of art ever created, even those lost to history, as well as every work of art which ever could be created, and photographs of your own birth, wedding, and funeral.”

As intriguing as this might be, again, the vast majority of images look like static. And again, you could look for something by uploading an image and it will find where it would be located in the library.

While it might seem to be some kind of trick—that the only coherent thing you might find is what you input—the site doesn’t store any text or pictures. As the person who built the site says, “Since I imagine the question will present itself in some visitors’ minds (a certain amount of distrust of the virtual is inevitable) I’ll head off any doubts: any text you find in any location of the library will be in the same place in perpetuity. We do not simply generate and store books as they are requested – in fact, the storage demands would make that impossible. Every possible permutation of letters is accessible at this very moment in one of the library’s books, only awaiting its discovery.”

As compelling as this might seem, I imagine hunting for something in all the static could lead to madness.

However, it is kind of disturbing to consider the implications. It has been bothering me ever since I learned about it.

Here’s the video:

Here’s the site:

Generation Jones

I recently discovered that I may be in a generational sub-group of the Baby Boomer generation. I was born in 1958 and have often felt that being on the tail end of the Boomer Generation was actually very much like being whipped around like the tail of a larger beast. It was like having a lot of the idealism of that generation while seeing the mistakes the Boomers were making, but not being able to do much about it. It was like coming late to the party when most of the cake was gone and the party prizes had already been given out (not as much at first, but more later as we entered the workforce). It also felt like we came of age just when there were beginning to be blow-backs and cut backs from the excesses from our older brethren (which only seemed to increase over time).

“Generation Jones is a term coined by the author Jonathan Pontell to describe those born from approximately 1954 to 1965, while other sources place the start point at 1956 or 1957. This group is essentially the latter half of the baby boomers to the first years of Generation X.”


“The generation is noted for coming of age after a huge swath of their older brothers and sisters in the earlier portion of the baby boomer population had come immediately preceding them; thus, many Generation Jones members complain that there was a paucity of resources and privileges available to them that were seemingly abundant to those older boomers born earlier. Therefore, there is a certain level of bitterness about and a ‘jonesing’ for the level of freedom and affluence granted to older boomers but denied to their generation.”

The Elephant In The Room

So, the U.S. spends more on defense than the next 7 countries combined, and—according to the article below—”the Pentagon receives 54 cents out of every dollar in federal appropriations.” That would seem to be the proverbial “elephant in the room” when discussing where our taxpayer money goes. And evidently, the books are cooked and trillions of dollars can’t be tracked.

Yet, many U.S. military families seem to struggle to survive financially.

Something seems to be very wrong with this picture.

Evidently, some other parties besides military families are benefiting from all this money. The ‘Military Industrial Complex’ former President Eisenhower warned everyone about in his Farewell Address is part of a problem that seems to have gone unchecked since his time. Earlier, in his “Chance for Peace” speech (aka: his “Cross of Iron” speech), Eisenhower said:

“Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired signifies, in the final sense, a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and are not clothed.

“This world in arms is not spending money alone. It is spending the sweat of its laborers, the genius of its scientists, the hopes of its children. The cost of one modern heavy bomber is this: a modern brick school in more than 30 cities. It is two electric power plants, each serving a town of 60,000 population. It is two fine, fully equipped hospitals. It is some fifty miles of concrete pavement. We pay for a single fighter with a half-million bushels of wheat. We pay for a single destroyer with new homes that could have housed more than 8,000 people. . . . This is not a way of life at all, in any true sense. Under the cloud of threatening war, it is humanity hanging from a cross of iron.”

But it seems that BOTH Republicans and Democrats don’t bat an eye when asked to approve military budget spending, which seems to keep increasing and is now the biggest in history. In fact, they were almost falling over each other to see how big of an increase they could approve earlier this year. The amount of JUST the increase–$82 billion—was more than the Trump Administration asked for, and it well surpasses Russia’s entire military budget each year.

I think it’s interesting that when Progressive Democrats propose things like universal health care or free college education (that a majority of Americans support, according to polls), everyone in the establishment wing of the Democrat Party, and most everyone in the establishment mainstream press, starts pushing back about how impractical they are being, and they always ask, “How do you expect to pay for it?”

Maybe we can START by looking at that proverbial and ponderous “elephant in the room.”

Exclusive: The Pentagon’s Massive Accounting Fraud Exposed